OPSC Main Exam Syllabus : Sociology

Updated on: Apr 18, 2013

Foundations Of Sociology

1. Sociology-The Discipline : Sociology As A Science And As An Interpretative Discipline; Impact Of Industrial And French Revolution On The Emergence Of Sociology; Sociology AndIts Relationship With History, Economics, Political Science, Psychology And Anthropology.
2. Scientific Study Of Social Phenomena : Problem Of Objectivity And Value Neutrality; Issue Of Measurement In Social Science; Elements Of Scientific Method-Concepts, Theory And Fact, Hypothesis; Research Designs-Descriptive, Exploratory And Experimental, Content Analysis.
3. Techniques Of Data Collection And Analysis : Participant And Quasi-Participant Observation; Interview, Questionnaire And Schedule Case Study, Sampling-Size, Reliability And Validity, Scaling Techniques-Social Distance And Likert Scale.
4. Pioneering Contributions To Sociology :
  1. Karl Marx : Historical Materialism, Alienation And Class Struggle.
  2. Emile Durkheim : Division Of Labour, Social Fact, Religion And Society, Suicide.
  3. Max Weber : Social Action, Ideal Types, Authority, Bureaucracy, Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism.
  4. Talcott Parsons : Social System, Pattern Variables.
  5. Robert K. Merton : Latent And Manifest Functions, Anomie, Conformity And Deviance, Reference Groups.
5. Marriage And Family : Types And Forms Of Marriage; Family-Structure And Function; Personality And Socialization; Social Control; Family, Lineage, Descent And Property; Changing Structure Of Family And Marriage In Modern Society; Divorce And Its Implications; Role Conflicts.
6. Social Stratification : Concepts-Hierarchy, Inequality And Stratification; Theories Of Stratification-Marx, Davis And Moore And Melvin Tumin’s Critique; Forms And Functions; Classdifferent Conceptions Of Class; Class-In-Itself And Class-For-Itself; Caste And Class; Caste As A Class.
7. Social Mobility : Types Of Mobility-Open And Closed Models; Intra-And Inter-Generational Mobility; Vertical And Horizontal Mobility; Social Mobility And Social Change.
8. Economic System : Sociological Dimensions Of Economic Life; The Impact Of Economic Processes On The Larger Society; Social Aspects Of Division Of Labour And Types Of Exchange; Features Of Pre-Industrial And Industrial Economic System; Industrialisation And Social Change; Social Determinants Of Economic Development.
9. Political System : The Nature Of Power-Personal Power, Community Power, Power Of The Elite, Class Power, Organisational Power, Power Of The Un-Organised Masses; Authority And Legitimacy; Pressure Groups And Political Parties; Voting Behaviour; Modes Of Political Participation-Democratic And Authoritarian Forms.
10. Educational System : Education And Culture; Equality Of Educational Opportunity; Social Aspects Of Mass Education; Problems Of Universalisation Of Primary Education; Role Of Community And State Intervention In Education; Education As An Instrument Of Social Control And Social Change;Education And Modernisation.
11. Religion : Origins Of Religious Beliefs In Pre-Modern Socieites; The Sacred And The Profane; Social Functions And Dysfunctions Of Religion; Monistic And Pluralistic Religion; Organised And Unorganised Religions; Semitism And Antisemitism; Religion, Sect And Cults; Magic, Religion And Science.
12. Social Change And Gender Issues : Social Construction Of Gender, Equality Vrs. Differences, Impact Of Globalization On Women, Emergence Of Feminist Thought, Gender Issues.


1. Historical Moorings Of The Indian Society : Traditional Hindu Social Organisation; Socio-Cultural Dynamics Through The Ages; Impact Of Buddhism, Islam, And The West, Factors In Continuity And Change.
2. Caste System : Origin Of The Caste System; Cultural And Structural Views About Caste; Mobility In Caste;Caste Among Muslims And Christians; Change And Persistence Of Caste In Modern India; Issues Of Equality And Social Justice; Views Of Gandhi And Ambedkar On Caste; Caste On And Indian Polity; Backward Classes Movement; Mandal Commission Report And Issues Of Social Backwardness And Social Justice; Emergence Of Dalit Consciousness, Backward Caste Movement.
3. Class Structure : Class Structure In India, Agrarian And Industrial Class Structure; Emergence Of Middle Class; Emergence Of Classes Among Tribes; Elite Formation In India.
4. Marriage, Family And Kinship : Marriage Among Different Religious And Tribal Groups, Its Changing Trends And Its Future; Family-Its Structural And Functional Aspects-Its Changing Forms; Regional Variations In Kinship Systems And Its Socio-Cultural Correlates; Impact Of Legislation And Socioeconomic Change On Marriage And Family; Generation Gap.
5. Agrarian Social Structure : Peasant Society And Agrarian Systems; Land Tenure Systems-Historical Perspectives, Social Consequences Of Land Reforms And Green Revolution; Feudalism-Semi-Feudalism Debates; Emerging Agrarian Class Structure; Peasant Movements.
6. Industry And Society : Path Of Industrialisation, Occupational Diversification, Trade Unions And Human Relations; Market Economy And Its Social Consequences; Economic Reforms Liberalisation, Privatisation And Globalisation.
7. Political Processes :Working Of The Democratic Political System In A Traditional Society; Political Parties And Their Social Base; Social Structural Origins Of Political Elites And Their Orientations; Regionalism, Pluralism And National Unity; Decentralisation Of Power; Panchayati Raj And Nagarpalikas And 73rd And 74th Constitutional Amendments.
8. Education : Directive Principles Of State Policy And Primary Education; Educational Inequality And Change; Education And Social Mobility; The Role Of Community And State Intervention In Education; Universalisation Of Primary Education; Total Literacy Campaigns; Educational Problems Of Disadvantaged Groups.
9. Religion And Society : Size, Growth And Regional Distribution Of Different Religious Groups; Educational Levels Of Different Groups; Problems Of Religious Minorities; Communal Tensions; Secularism; Conversions; Religious Fundamentalism, Religious Reform Movements.
10. Tribal Societies : Distinctive Features Of Tribal Communities And Their Geographical Spread; Problems Of Tribal Communities-Land Alienation, Health And Nutrition, Education; Tribal Development Efforts After Independence; Tribal Policy-Isolation, Assimilation And Integration; Issues Of Tribal Identity.
11. Social Change And Development : Endogenous And Exogenous Sources Of Change And Resistance To Change; Processes Of Change-Sanskritisation And Modernisation; Agents Of Change-Mass Media, Education And Communication; Problems Of Change And Modernisation; Structural Contradictions And Breakdowns; Migration, Determinants And Consequences Of Population Growth, Population Policy And Family Welfare Programmes, Child Welfare Programmes.
12. Major Social Issues : Poverty, Indebtedness, Bonded Labour, Unemployment, Depletion Of Forests, Development Related Displacement, Corruption, Alcoholism, Aids, Drug Addiction, Violence Against Women, Dowry. Child Labour; Maternal And Infant Mortality Rate In Orissa.

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