OPSC Pre Syllabus : Chemistry

Updated on: Apr 18, 2013

Inorganic Chemistry
1.1 Atomic Structure : Schrodinger Wave Equation, Significance Of Ø And ز Quantum Numbers And Their Significance, Radial And Angular Probability, Shapes Of Orbitals, RelativeEnergies Of Atomic Orbitals As A Function Of Atomic Number. Electronic Configurations OfElements; Aufbau Principle, Hund's Multiplicity Rule, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle.
1.2 Chemical Periodicity : Periodic Classification Of Elements, Salient Characteristics OfS,P,D And F Block Elements. Periodic Trends Of Atomic Radii, Ionic Radii, IonisationPotential, Electron Affinity And Electronegativity In The Periodic Table.
1.3 Chemical Bonding : Types Of Bonding, Overlap Of Atomic Orbitals, Sigma And PiBonds, Hydrogen And Metallic Bonds. Shapes Of Molecules, Bond Order, Bond Length,V.S.E.P.R. Theory And Bond Angles. The Concept Of Hybridization And Shapes Of MoleculesAnd Ions.
1.4 Oxidation States And Oxidation Number : Oxidation And Reduction, OxidationNumbers, Common Redox Reactions, Ionic Equations. Balancing Of Equations For OxidationAnd Reduction Reactions.
1.5 Acids And Bases : Bronsted And Lewis Theories Of Acids And Bases. Hard And SoftAcids And Bases. Hsab Principle, Relative Strengths Of Acids And Bases And The Effect OfSubstituents And Solvents On Their Strength.
1.6 Chemistry Of Elements :(I) Hydrogen: Its Unique Position In The Periodic Table, Isotopes, Ortho And Para Hydrogen,Industrial Production, Heavy Water.(Ii) Chemistry Of S And P Block Elements : Electronic Configuration, GeneralCharacteristics Properties, Inert Pair Effect, Allotropy And Catenation. Special Emphasis OnSolutions Of Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals In Liquid Ammonia. Preparation, PropertiesAnd Structures Of Boric Acid, Borates, Boron Nitrides, Borohydride (Diborane), Carboranes,Oxides And Oxyacids Of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur And Chlorine; InterhalogenCompounds, Polyhalide Ions, Pseudohalogens, Fluorocarbons And Basic Properties OfHalogens. Chemical Reactivity Of Noble Gases, Preparation, Structure And Bonding Of NobleGas Compounds.(Iii) Chemistry Of D Block Elements: Transition Metals Including Lanthanides, GeneralCharacteristic Properties, Oxidation States, Magnetic Behaviour, Colour. First Row TransitionMetals And General Properties Of Their Compounds (Oxides, Halides And Sulfides)Lanthanide Contraction.
1.7 Extraction Of Metals : Principles Of Extraction Of Metals As Illustrated By Sodium,Magnesium, Aluminium, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Silver And Gold.
1.8 Nuclear Chemistry : Nuclear Reactions; Mass Defect And Binding Energy, NuclearFission And Fusion. Nuclear Reactors; Radioisotopes And Their Applications.
1.9 Coordination Compounds : Iupac Nomenclature, Isomerism And Theories OfCoordination Compounds And Their Role In Nature And Medicine.
1.10 Pollution And Its Control : Air Pollution, Types Of Air Pollutants; Control Of Air AndWater Pollution; Radioactive Pollution.


Organic Chemistry
2.1 Bonding And Shapes Of Organic Molecules : Electronegativity, ElectronDisplacements, Inductive, Mesomeric And Hyperconjugative Effects; Bond Polarity AndBond Polarizability, Dipole Moments Of Organic Molecules; Hydrogen Bond; Effects OfSolvent And Structure On Dissociation Constants Of Acids And Bases; Bond Formation, FissionOf Covalent Bonds : Homolysis And Heterolysis; Reaction Intermediates-Carbocations,Carbanions, Benzynes, Arynes, Enamines, Free Radicals And Carbenes; Generation,Geometry And Stability; Nucleophiles And Electrophiles.
2.2 Chemistry Of Aliphatic Compounds: Nomenclature; Alkenes-Synthesis, Reactions(Free Radical Halogenation) -- Reactivity And Selectivity, Sulfonation, Detergents;Cycloalkanes, Baeyer's Strain Theory; Alkenes And Alkynes, Synthesis, Electrohilic AdditionReactions, Markownikov's Rule, Peroxide Effects, 1- 3 -Dipolar Addition; NucleophilicAddition To Electron-Deficient Alkenes; Polymerisation; Relative Acidity; Synthesis AndReactions Of Alkyl Halides, Alkanols, Alkanals, Alkanones, Alkanoic Acids, Esters, Amides,Nitriles, Amines, Acid Anhydrides, R ßunsaturated Ketones, Ethers And Nitro Compounds.
2.3 Stereochemistry Of Carbon Compounds : Elements Of Symmetry, Chiral And AchiralCompounds. Fischer Projection Formulae; Optical Isomerism Of Lactic And Tartaric Acids,Enantiomerism And Diastereoisomerism; Configuration (Relative And Absolute);Conformations Of Alkanes Upto Four Carbons, Cyclohexane And Dimethylcyclohexanes-TheirPotential Energy. D, L-And R, S-Notations Of Compounds Containing Chiral Centres;Projection Formulae-Fischer, Newman And Sawhorse Of Compounds Containing TwoAdjacent Chiral Centres; Meso And Dl-Isomers, Erythro And Threo Isomers; Racemization AndResolution; Examples Of Homotopic, Enantiotopic And Diasteretopic Atoms And Groups InOrganic Compounds, Geometrical Isomers; E And Z Notations. Stereochemistry Of Sn1,Sn2, E1 And E2 Reactions.
2.4 Organometallic Compounds : Preparation And Synthetic Uses Of Grignard Reagents,Organo Lithium Compounds.
2.5 Active Methylene Compounds : Diethyl Malonate, Ethylacetoacetate,Ethylcyanoacetate, Applications In Organic Synthesis; Tautomerism (Keto-Enol).
2.6 Chemistry Of Aromatic Compounds : Aromaticity; Huckel's Rule; ElectrophilicAromatic Substitution : Nitration, Sulfonation, Halogenation (Nuclear And Side Chain),Friedel-Crafts Alkylation And Acylation, Substituents Effect; Chemistry And Reactivity OfAromatic Halides, Phenols, Nitro-, Diazo-, Diazonium-And Sulfonic Acid Derivatives,Benzyne Reactions.
2.7 Chemistry Of Biomolecules : (I) Carbohydrates : Classification, Reactions, StructureOf Glucose, D, L-Configuration, Osazone Formation; Fructose And Sucrose; Step-Up AndStep-Down Of Aldoses And Ketoses, And Their Interconversions, (Ii) Amino Acdis : EssentialAmino Acids; Zwitterions, Isoelectric Point, Polypeptides; Proteins; Methods Of SynthesisOf Amino Acids. (Iii) Elementary Idea Of Oils, Fats, Soaps And Detergents.
2.8 Basic Principles And Applications Of Uv, Visible, Ir And Nmr Spectroscopy OfSimple Organic Molecules.


Physical Chemistry
3.1 Gaseous State : Deviation Of Real Gases From The Equation Of State For An Ideal Gas,Van Der Waals And Virial Equation Of State, Critical Phenomena, Principle OfCorresponding States, Equation For Reduced State. Liquefaction Of Gases, Distribution OfMolecular Speed, Collisions Between Molecules In A Gas; Mean Free Path, Speicific Heat OfGases
3.2 Thermodynamics : (I) First Law And Its Applications: Thermodynamic Systems,States And Processes, Work, Heat And Internal Energy, Zeroth Law Of Thermodynamics,Various Types Of Work Done On A System In Reversible And Irreversible Processes.Calorimetry And Thermochemistry, Enthalpy And Enthalpy Changes In Various Physical AndChemical Processes, Joule-Thomson Effect, Inversion Temperautre. Heat Capacities AndTemperature Dependence Of Enthalpy And Energy Changes.(Ii) Second Law And Its Applications : Spontaneity Of A Process, Entropy And EntropyChanges In Various Processes, Free Energy Functions, Criteria For Equilibrium, RelationBetween Equilibrium Constant And Thermodynamic Quantities.
3.3 Phase Rule And Its Applications : Equilibrium Bewteen Liquid, Solid And Vapours Of APure Substance, Clausius-Clapeyron Equation And Its Applications. Number OfComponents, Phases And Degrees Of Freedom; Phase Rule And Its Applications; SimpleSystems With One (Water And Sulfur) And Two Components (Lead-Silver, Salt Hydrates).Distribution Law, Its Modifications, Limitations And Applications.
3.4 Solutions : Solubility And Its Temperature Dependence, Partially Miscible Liquids,Upper And Lower Critical Solution Temperatres, Vapour Pressures Of Liquids Over TheirMixtures, Raoult's And Henry's Laws, Fractional And Steam Distillations.
3.5 Colligative Properties : Dilute Solutions And Colligative Properties, Determination OfMolecular Weights Using Colligative Properties.
3.6 Electrochemistry : Ions In Solutions, Ionic Equilibria, Dissociation Constants Of AcidsAnd Bases, Hydrolysis, Ph And Buffers, Theory Of Indicators And Acid-Base Titrations.Conductivity Of Ionic Solutions, Its Variation With Concentration, Ostwald's Dilution Law,Kohlrausch’s Law And Its Application. Transport Number And Its Determination. Faraday'sLaws Of Electrolysis, Galvanic Cells And Measurements Of Their E.M.F., Cell Reactions,Standard Cell, Standard Reduction Potential, Nernst Equation, Relation BetweenThermodynamic Quantities And Cell E.M.F., Fuel Cells, Potentiometric Titrations.
3.7 Chemical Kinetics : Rate Of Chemical Reaction And Its Dependence On ConcentrationsOf The Reactants, Rate Constant And Order Of Reaction And Their Experimental Determination;Differential And Integral Rate Equations For First And Second Order Reaction, Half-LifePeriods; Temperature Dependence Of Rate Constant And Arrhenius Parameters; ElementaryIdeas Regarding Collision And Transition State Theory.
3.8 Photochemistry : Absorption Of Light, Laws Of Photochemistry, Quantum Yield, TheExcited State And Its Decay By Radiative, Nonradiative And Chemical Pathways; SimplePhotochemical Reactions.
3.9 Catalysis : Homogeneous And Heterogeneous Catalysis And Their Characteristics,Mechanism Of Heterogeneous Catalysis; Enzyme-Catalysed Reactions (Michaelis-MentenMechanism).
3.10 Colloids : The Colloidal State, Preparation And Purification Of Colloids And TheirCharacteristics Properties; Lyophilic And Lyophobic Colloids And Coagulation; Protection OfColloids; Gels, Emulsions, Surfactants And Micelles.
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